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Table 1 Vertebral information and congenital abnormalities in investigated mammalian specimens: Folivorea (sloths)

From: Breaking evolutionary and pleiotropic constraints in mammals: On sloths, manatees and homeotic mutations

Folivora (sloths)
Collection Species Collection No. Sex Vertebral formula Presacral No. Rud. ribs on vertebrae Skeletal and fibrous abnormalities
   15260 **) F 5C 1C/T 22T 1T/L 3L 6S 1S/Cg 5Cg 32 V6, V29 C2/C3 fusion, deformation of pelvic girdle, hole in scapula
RBINC Choloepus hoffmanni 16349 **) F 5C 1C/T 21T 1T/L 3L 1L/S 5S 5Cg 31.5 V6 C1/C2 fusion, hole in larynx
   16348 **) F 5C 1C/T 21T 4L 1L/S 7S 1SCg 4Cg 31.5 V6 C2/C3 fusion
   RMNH.MAM.322 **) F 6C 1C/T 23T 4L 7S 1S/Cg 5Cg 34 V7 Malformed first ribs, hole in scapula
   RMNH.MAM.3961 F 6C 1C/T 23T 1T/L 2L 1L/S 7S 5Cg 33.5 V7 -
   RMNH.MAM.24470 n.a. 5C 2C/T 24T 4L 7S 1S/Cg 3+Cg 35 V6,V7 Abnormal fibrous band attached to rudimentary rib
   RMNH.MAM.24469 n.a. 5C 2C/T 23T 4L 7S 4Cg 34 V6 V7 Incomplete ossification sternum
   RMNH.MAM.3274 n.a. 6C 1C/T 22T 1T/L 4L 7S 6Cg 34 V7 -
   RMNH.MAM.3465 n.a. 5C 2C/T 23T 1T/L 3L 7S 5Cg 34 V6 V7 C2-C3 fusion, ossification absent in sternum, fusion of ribs on V6-V7,
   RMNH.MAM.1002 **) F 5C 2C/T 23T 3L 1L/S 7S 4Cg 33.5 V6 V7 C2-C3 fusion, deformation of first ribs, asymmetric sternum, fusion of rudimentary ribs on V6-V7
NCBN Choloepus didactylus RMNH.MAM.7203 **) F 6C 1C/T 23T 4L 7S 1S/Cg +Cg 34 V7 C2-C3 fusion, V7-V8 fusion, asymmetric vertebrae, fibrous band attached to rudimentary ribs
   RMNH.MAM.2552 F 6C 1C/T 24T 3L 7S 1S/Cg 5Cg 34 V7 Malformed ribs (3 most anterior ones)
   RMNH.MAM.1673 F 6C 1C/T 24T 3L 8S 5Cg 34 V7 C3,C4,C5 fused
   ZMA335 n.a. 6C 1C/T 24T 3L 8S 4CG 34 V7 Ossification absent in sternum and sacrum
   ZMA334 n.a. 5C 2C/T 23T 4L 1L/S 9S 3+Cg 34.5 V6 C2-C3 fusion
   ZMA.336 n.a. 6C 1C/T 1C/T 22T 4L 8S 4Cg 34 V7 V8 Abnormal fibrous band attached to rudimentary rib, incomplete ossification
   RMNH.MAM.11417 F - - - Malformed humeri, oligodontia
   RMNH.MAM.1156 n.a. 1L 1L/S 7S 4Cg - - *)
   ZMA.9765 F 6S 1S/Cg - - *)
   RMNH.MAM.21576 n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 3L 1L/S 6S 9Cg 28 V9 Asymmetric cranium
   RMNH.MAM.21581 n.a. 7C 2C/T 14T 1T/L 3L 7S 8Cg 27 V8 V9 V24 -
   RMNH.MAM.24440 n.a. 8C 1C/T 16T - - Asymmetric cranium
   RMNH.MAM.10460 F 8C 1C/T 15T 4L 6S 8Cg 28 V9 Irregularly shaped first rib
   RMNH.MAM.10459 F 8C 1C/T 14T 3L 1L/S 6S 6C 6+Cg 27 V9 Metacarpal, metatarsal anomalies, many fractures, hole in cranium (unknown cause)
  Bradypus tridactylus RMNH.MAM.18781 F 8C 1C/T 14T 4L 6S 8Cg 27 V9 -
   RMNH.MAM.24421 n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 4L 5S 10Cg 28 - -
   ZMA331 n.a. 7C 2C/T 14T 1T/L 4L 6S 1S/Cg 7Cg 28 V8 V9 V24 Irregularly shaped vertebrae and first rib
   ZMA332 n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 1T/L 3L 6S 1S/Cg 6+Cg 28 V9 V25 -
   ZMA924 **) n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 3L 6S 7Cg 27 V9 Irregularly shaped vertebrae and first rib
   U. ZMA coll. **) n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 4L 5S 1S/Cg 8Cg 28 V9 -
  1. *) Skeleton largely absent
  2. **) Died in captivity
  3. Abbreviations: n.a. - not available, C -Cervical, T - Thoracic, L-Lumbar, S - Sacral, Cg - Coccygeal, Cd - Caudal (post thoracic), V - Vertebra, rud. - rudimentary, NCBN - NCB Naturalis, RMCA - Royal Museum for Central Africa Tervuren, RBINC - Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Brussels, NHM - Natural History Museum London