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Table 5 Vertebral information and congenital abnormalities in investigated mammalian specimens: Dugongidae (Dugongs)

From: Breaking evolutionary and pleiotropic constraints in mammals: On sloths, manatees and homeotic mutations

Dugongidae (Dugongs)
Collection Species Collection No. Sex Vertebral formula Precaudal No. Rud. ribs on vertebrae Skeletal and fibrous abnormalities
   ZMA.8870 n.a. 6C 1C/T 19T 25+Cd 26 V7 Malformed cervical vertebrae
NCBN   RMNH.MAM.27522 n.a. 7C 19T 1T/Cd 34Cd 26 - -
   RMNH.MAM.27523 n.a. 6C 1C/T 19T 1T/Cd 33Cd 26.5 V7, V27 C2-C3 fusion, rib fusions, malformed cervical vertebrae, fusion of 4th and 5th digit of forelimb
   1946.8.6.1 F 6C 1C/T 19T 24+Cd 26 V7 Asymmetric sternum, malformed vertebrae, tiny hole in cranium (midline)
   1870.8.16.1 M 7C 19T 30Cd 26 - -
NHM Dugong dugon 1966 9.7.1 M 6C 1C/T 19T 29Cd 26 V7 Cranium, vertebrae and ribs irregularly shaped, asymmetric sternum
   1885.4.20.2 F 6C 1C/T 18T 1T/Cd 31Cd 25.5 V7, V26 Cranium and sternum malformed
   1.183d n.a. 6C 1C/T 19T 35Cd 26 V7 Asymmetric sternum, abnormal ossification of tendons in manus, arthrosis, severe osteoporosis
RBINC   800B1/2 F 7C 18T 1T/Cd 31Cd 25.5 V26 -
   800 n.a. 7C 18T 26+Cd 25 - Tiny hole in cranium (midline)
   1.183B n.a. 7C 18T 33Cd 25 - Tiny hole in cranium (midline)
  1. *) Skeleton largely absent
  2. **) Died in captivity
  3. Abbreviations: n.a. - not available, C -Cervical, T - Thoracic, L-Lumbar, S - Sacral, Cg - Coccygeal, Cd - Caudal (post thoracic), V - Vertebra, rud. - rudimentary, NCBN - NCB Naturalis, RMCA - Royal Museum for Central Africa Tervuren, RBINC - Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Brussels, NHM - Natural History Museum London