Hypotheses of the serial homology of the mandibular inner and outer lobes to the maxillary lacinia and galea endites. (A) Representation of a primitive embryonic biramous limb from which all post-antennal limbs have evolved. The limb consists of two branches (rami), the telopodite and exopodite which are attached to a proximal protopodite. There are multiple endites on the proximal-medial part of the limb. The proximal endite is indicated with a star. (B) A representation of the embryonic mandible with the inner and outer lobes of the mandible derived from one endite (shown in red). If the molar and incisor processes are derived from one endite, then they can only be serially homologous to one of the maxillary endites (such as the lacinia). (C) The inner (red) and outer (blue) lobes of the mandibular embryonic appendage have been hypothesised to be serially homologous to the lacinia (red) and galea (blue) of the maxilla by Machida. This hypothesis assumes that the mandible has two endites which develop into the molar and incisor processes.