Toll and Bone Morphogenetic Protein pathway genes are dynamically expressed throughout embryonic development. Normalized mRNA levels for (A,F) Rp-Toll, (C,G) Rp-dl, (D) Rp-dpp, and (E) Rp-sog in vitellogenic ovaries (vitelo), embryonic stages (stages 1 to 4, 0 to 48 hours), or unfertilized eggs (F,G). Differences in gene expression throughout embryonic development were significant for all genes between preblastoderm (0 to 12 hours) and gastrulation stages (18 to 30 hours) (one-way analysis of variance, p <0.05). (B) Toll protein levels vary throughout Rhodnius development. (F,G) Differences in mRNA levels for (F) Rp-Toll and (G) Rp-dl in fertilized (fert) versus unfertilized (non fert) 0- to 6-hour or 18- to 24-hour eggs were significant: **p <0.01, ***p <0.001 by paired t-test. Use of appropriate reference genes was defined as in Additional file1. Dm, D. melanogaster; Rp, R. prolixus.