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Table 1 Major features of Rhodnius embryonic development until katatrepsis

From: Toll signals regulate dorsal–ventral patterning and anterior–posterior placement of the embryo in the hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus

Period Stage Developmental time at 28°C Characteristic features in whole mounts
   Hours %*  
Cleavage 1A 0–6 1.8 Nuclei divide internally
1B 6–12 3.6 Nuclei reach the periphery
Blastoderm 2A 12–18 5.3 Formation of germ rudiment
2B 18–24 7.1 Nuclei progressively concentrate at egg posterior
Gastrulation 3A 24–30 8.9 Germ rudiment invagination begins
3B 30–36 10.7 Germ band extension
Segmentation 4 36–48 14.3 Anterior segmentation (in head and thorax) begins
5 48–60 17.9 Appendage buds appear; non-segmented abdomen
6 60–72 21.4 Appendages grow;
segmented abdomen; neural groove evident
Growth 7 72–84 25 Thoracic appendages elongate, bigger than head appendages
8 84–96 26.6 Antennal appendages grow over first maxillary appendages
9 96–108 32 First maxillary appendages hidden by antennal appendages; embryo shortens and widens (germ band retraction)
Katatrepsis and Dorsal Closure 10 108–132 35 At the end of katatrepsis, embryo and egg anterior-posterior axes coincide; embryo closes dorsally
  1. *% refers to total embryonic development at 28°C.