Model for flower development in Lepidium study species, with proposed timing of reproductive organ abortion in dioecious L. sisymbrioides . The model is informed by our SEM and histological observations (Figures 5, 6) and follows Arabidopsis thaliana stages, noted on the right [20, 61, 62]. Entire flower shown in stages 1 to 6, only one stamen (left) and one carpel of the bicarpellate gynoecium (right) shown in stages 7 to 13. A filament differentiates within the stamen in stage 8, and elongates in stage 9. ⊢ stage of abortion for female (left) and male (right) flowers of L. sisymbrioides.