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Table 1 Synonyms for somite-related structures of amphioxus, anamniotes, and amniotes

From: Development of somites and their derivatives in amphioxus, and implications for the evolution of vertebrate somites

Group Structure
Amphioxus Somitocoel 1   Myotome 4 External cell layer 1 Sclerotome 1 Sclerocoel 9 Lateral plate 10
  Myocoel2 No equivalent Myomesothelium5 Lateral wall6 Sclerablatt3   Seitenplatt3
  Myocöl3   Muskelblatt3 Dermomyotome7    
     Dermatome8    
     Cutisblatt3    
Anamniote Somitocoel 11 Dermomyotome Myotome 13 External cell layer 11,14 Sclerotome 18 No equivalent Lateral plate 19
  Myocoel12   Primary myotome11 Dermomyotome15    
     Dermatome16    
     Dermoendothelium17    
Amniote Somitocoel 20 Dermomyotome 21 Myotome 21 Central dermomyotome 21 Sclerotome 21 No equivalent Lateral plate 21
     Dermatome22    
  1. Terms used in the present paper are in italics. 1Present paper (without precedent). 2 [15,68]. 3 [14]. 4 [3]; later in development, the myotome is generally termed ‘trunk muscle’. 5 [15]. 6 [15,68]. 7 [3]. 8 [69]. 9 [15]; ([14], considered this space as a subdivision of the myocoel). 10 [30]. 11 [70]. 12 [3]. 13 [71]; [3] later in development, the myotome is generally termed ‘trunk muscle’. 14[3] use the term ‘external cell layer’ alternatively with ‘lateral wall cells’. 15 [5]. 16 [72]. 17 [73] (name indicating later development as scale pockets in the dermis). 18 [71]; ([3] a region of sclerotome-derived cells (collectively the syndetome) gives rise to the tenocytes (myoseptal cells) at myotendinous junctions [5,38]). 19 [74]. 20We will consider all chordate somitocoels homologous, although [3] have questioned that homology. The loose cells (collectively the arthrotome) in the amniote somitocoel are evidently sclerotome-related and give rise to the articular surfaces on the amniote axial skeleton [3]. 21 [33] Later in development, the myotome is generally termed ‘trunk muscle’. 22 [75].