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Fig. 1 | EvoDevo

Fig. 1

From: Establishment of lateral organ asymmetries in the invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis

Fig. 1

Right-sided heart positioning in Ciona. a′a″ Lateral (a′) and dorsal (a″) views of a typical Ciona juvenile, (o.s.) oral siphon, (p.s.) pigment spots, (s.) stalk. Heart and endostyle are false-colored, (b′c) lateral confocal sections of Ciona juveniles (b′b‴) and ventral projections of late embryonic and larval stages (c′c‴). Cell outlines are visualized using phalloidin, and heart founder cell nuclei are transgenically labeled by Mesp > H2B:GFP (green). Sections in (b′b‴) correspond to lines in (a″). Lateral differences in GFP intensity (most evident in c″) reflect uneven incorporation of transgenic constructs on the right versus left sides of the embryo. In (c′c″), heart progenitor nuclei are shown at high gain in the bottom right and demarcated by white arrowheads. Atrial siphon muscle precursors (ASM) are circled in red, and anterior tail muscle (ATM) cells are marked using yellow asterisks. d Schematic of neurula rotation and hypothesized mechanism for establishing embryonic left–right axis, and dorsal views are shown. e Impact of dechorionation on juvenile heart positioning, and data represent three trials including 71 chorionated samples and 71 dechorionated samples. P value (1.4E−12) between chorionated and dechorionated samples was derived using a χ 2 test. In all images and schematics, anterior is to the left. All scale bars are in micrometers

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