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Table 1 Bud development stages based on morphological markers, means (and ranges, in parentheses, for mid- and late stages) of bud diameter for each stage across species, and estimates of duration (in days) spent in each stage

From: Heterochronic developmental shifts underlie floral diversity within Jaltomata (Solanaceae)

  J. darcyana J. sinuosa J. calliantha
Diameter Mean (mm) Diameter SD Days2 Diameter Mean (mm) Diameter SD Days2 Diameter Mean (mm) Diameter SD Days2
Early
A Sepals initiated 0.20a 0.03   0.17a 0.03   0.17a ND  
B Petals initiated; sepal trichomes initiated 0.27a 0.03   0.27a 0.04   0.28a 0.06  
C Stamens initiated 0.39a 0.07   0.36a 0.04   0.37a 0.07  
D Gynoecium initiated; petal trichomes initiated 0.62a 0.05   0.60a 0.07   0.60a 0.08  
E Stamen filament/anther distinguished; corolla tube apparent 0.72a 0.08   0.69a 0.09   0.83a 0.07  
F Gynoecium fused; style elongation started 1.05a 0.16 2 0.86a 0.06 2 0.91a 0.11 2
Mid
G Anther thecae distinguished; petal trichomes mature 2.93a (1.3–4.0) 0.88 14 2.65a (0.9–4.8) 1.40 20 2.98a (1.0–5.5) 1.46 20
Late
H Petals outgrow sepals 4.50a (4.0–4.8) 0.23 2 5.38b (5.0–5.7) 0.22 4 7.97c (5.5–10.0) 1.27 4
I Sepals open fully 5.10a (4.8–5.4) 0.23 1 6.79b (5.9–7.5) 0.53 3 11.22c (10.0–12.0) 0.59 3
J1 Petals open (anthesis); nectar secretion started in Jaltomata 5.00a 0.32   7.16b 0.45   12.13c 0.36  
  J. dendroidea J. umbellata S. pimpinellifolium
Diameter Mean (mm) Diameter SD Days2 Diameter Mean (mm) Diameter SD Days2 Diameter Mean (mm) Diameter SD Days2
Early
A Sepals initiated 0.21a 0.04   0.20a 0.01   0.18a 0.03  
B Petals initiated; sepal trichomes initiated 0.29a ND   0.24a 0.02   0.26a 0.02  
C Stamens initiated 0.42a 0.08   0.42a 0.07   0.39a 0.08  
D Gynoecium initiated; petal trichomes initiated 0.64a 0.05   0.59a 0.08   0.53a 0.10  
E Stamen filament/anther distinguished; corolla tube apparent 0.81a 0.11   0.86a 0.24   0.69a 0.07  
F Gynoecium fused; style elongation started 1.02a 0.07 2 0.91a 0.07 2 0.80a 0.23 1
Mid
G Anther thecae distinguished; petal trichomes mature 2.51ab (1.0–5.5) 1.62 20 1.65bc (1.0–2.3) 0.40 10 0.96c (0.7–1.2) 0.17 4
Late
H Petals outgrow sepals 6.29d (5.5–7.0) 0.55 2 2.81e (2.3–3.3) 0.27 2 2.77e (2.4–3.0) 0.17 2
I Sepals open fully 10.96c (7.0–15.5) 2.69 8 3.18d (3.1–3.6) 0.26 5 3.12d (3.0–3.3) 0.10 4
J1 Petals open (anthesis); nectar secretion started in Jaltomata 15.30d 0.27   3.44e 0.11   2.75f 0.19  
  1. Significant differences among species are indicated by different letters (p < 0.001 following Bonferroni correction, with ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD)
  2. 1Bud diameter data are from measurements on destructively sampled buds throughout development, except for stage J which were obtained from the separate experiment measuring duration of floral development (i.e., Table 3). Average bud diameter at stage J is therefore provided here to represent fully mature buds just prior to anthesis (i.e., the end of floral ontogeny as measured in this study)
  3. 2Days refers to an estimate of how many days buds remain at each stage, based on the experiment measuring duration of floral development starting at 1 mm buds