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Fig. 2 | EvoDevo

Fig. 2

From: Mechanisms and evolution of resistance to environmental extremes in animals

Fig. 2

(Adapted from Hochachka et al. [5])

Schematic of defense and rescue phases of hypoxic response. Left: the defense phase of hypoxia tolerance begins with the sensing of low-oxygen conditions. ATP intensive processes, such as membrane ion-pumping and protein synthesis are downregulated. A balance between ATP demand and production is maintained, albeit at decreased levels. Right: the rescue phase of hypoxia tolerance relies on the sensing of sustained oxygen deprivation. Specific upregulation of elongation and transcription factors primes hypoxic cells for recovery. Rescue elongation factors mediate the translation of rescue specific mRNAs, while rescue transcription factors drive the upregulation of rescue specific genes

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