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Table 1 Carnegie stages and gestation age in the model bat C. perspicillata

From: Differential cellular proliferation underlies heterochronic generation of cranial diversity in phyllostomid bats

Carnegie stage (CS) Bat day of gestation Mouse equivalent limbs Mouse equivalent craniofacial Key events
CS16 E50 E12.5 E14.5 Craniofacial prominences completely fused
Undifferentiated mesenchyme in medial midface
Meckel’s cartilage as circular condensation
Posterior cranial base cartilage begins to organize
CS17 E54 E13.0 E15.0 Thickening of presumptive leaf-nose
Lateral nasal capsule cartilage thickens
Mesenchymal thickenings of olfactory turbinates
Tooth development similar to mouse (thickening)
CS18 E60 E13.5 E15.5 Dorsal ventral expansion at the resting zone of basisphenoid
Resting zone formation in presphenoid
Palatal shelves begin separation of oral and nasal cavity
Meckel’s cartilage is rod-like across length of mandible
Tooth development similar to mouse (tooth bud)
CS19 E64 E14.0 E16.0 Cranial base fully connected along the anterior–posterior aspect of head
Lateral nasal capsule fuses with medial nasal septum.
Palatal shelf fusion
Dermal papillae and induction of the sensory vibrissae.
VNO as an epithelial tube with thicker sensory epithelium in its ventromedial side
Leaf-nose bud increases in size as lancet development begins
CS20 E70 E14.5 E16.5 Hypertrophic chondrocytes appear in the posterior basisphenoid
Proliferation begins in the presphenoid
CS21 E75 E15.0 E17.0 Hypertrophic chondrocytes appear in anterior basisphenoid
Ossification begins in the posterior basisphenoid
CS22 E80 E15.5 E17.5 Hypertrophic chondrocytes in anterior presphenoid
Ossification in presphenoid
Olfactory tract into olfactory epithelium
CS23 E85 E16.0 E18.0 Continued growth
CS24 E90 E16.5 E18.5/P1 Canine tooth appositional stage