Phylogenetic relationship of early-branching animal lineages. Given the conflicting results of several recent studies and the current existing phylogenomic evidence presented in this study, we have constructed an animal phylogeny that includes two polytomies. It is uncertain whether Porifera or Ctenophora branched at the base. The evidence from this study (and others) unites Placozoa, Cnidaria and Bilateria into the subkingdom ParaHoxozoa. The origins of class and subclass founders are indicated along major branches of the tree.