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Table 1 Glossary

From: Phenotypic plasticity and modularity allow for the production of novel mosaic phenotypes in ants



Main references

Combinatorial evolution

Evolution by reorganization of preexisting elements. Different subunits are rearranged, and can be deleted, duplicated, and moved in various ways. This occurs not only at molecular level [112] but also at higher phenotypic levels. Typical examples of such process are heterochrony (changes in the timing of a developmental process) and heterotopy (changes in spatial location of a developmental process) [113]. Such evolutionary changes are likely to result from selection of mutations in cis-regulatory elements within particular gene regulatory networks [45]

Jacob [6]; McGinnis and Krumlauf [112]; Maeshiro and Kimura [114]; West-Eberhard [9]; West-Eberhard [10]

Developmental recombination

Reorganization of ancestral phenotypic traits in a particular individual, before genetic accommodation has fixed the phenotype in the population. The process has also been termed ‘chimeric’ or ‘somatic’ recombination

West-Eberhard [9]; West-Eberhard [10]; see also Davidson [14]; Ray [15]; Raff and Kaufman [16]

Genetic accommodation

Selection on standing genetic variation that molds the plastic response of a phenotypic trait. This occurs when the developmental-genetic system is sensitized, because genetic variation becomes exposed as phenotypic variation when the organism encounters a different environment

Waddington [18]; Suzuki and Nijhout [19]; Moczek [20]; Nijhout and Suzuki [21]; Suzuki and Nijhout [22]

Mosaic phenotype

Phenotype recombining within single individual traits that are normally found in distinct individuals

Wheeler and Weber [71]; Yang and Abouheif [109]