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Table 2 The genes involved in shortening the face and making the orofacial cleft in mouse

From: Creating diversity in mammalian facial morphology: a review of potential developmental mechanisms

Gene Mutant Phenotype Protein function Signaling pathway References
Bmp2/Bmp4 Wnt1Cre; Bmp2 f/f ; Bmp4 f/f Truncated face Signaling molecule BMP [30]
Bmpr1a NestinCre; Bmpr1a /f CL/P Receptor BMP [215]
Ctnnb1 Ctnnb1 f/f ; Crect Truncated face Transcription factor; regulation of cell–cell adhesion Wnt [22]
Msx1 Msx1 / Truncated face Transcription factor BMP
Shh
[23]
Ptch1 Wnt1Cre; Ptch1 c/c CL Receptor Hh [216]
Smo Wnt1Cre;Smo /c Truncated face Receptor Hh [217]
Tfap2a Tfap2a Neo(hypomrpha)/Null model CL/P Transcription factor FGF
Notch
BMP
[218]
Wnt3 Wnt3 −/− CL/P Signaling molecule Wnt [219]
Wnt9b Wnt9b /clf1 CL/P Signaling molecule Wnt [220]
Wnt5a Wnt5a / Truncated face Signaling molecule Wnt [25, 31, 32]
Bmpr1a Osr2-IresCre;Bmpr1af/f SMCP Receptor BMP [38]
Fblin5 Fblin5 / Shortened face Secreted extracellular matrix protein MAPK-Erk [35]
Fgf8 Osr2cre;Rosa26R-Fgf8 CP Growth factor FGF [221]
Kif3a Wnt1Cre;Kif3a f/f CP Motor protein Hh [222]
Msx1 Msx1 / Shortened face
CP
Transcription factor BMP
Shh
[223, 224]
Mn1 Mn1 / Shortened face
CP
Transcription coregulator N/A [225]
Shox2 Shox2 / CP Transcription factor N/A [226]
Tbx22 Tbx22 / SMCP Transcription factor BMP
FGF
[39]
Tgfβr2 Wnt1Cre; Tgfβr2 f/f CP Receptor TGF-β [227]