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Table 2 Summary of all featured parasite groups in order of appearance in the text, including host taxa (in alphabetical order, multiple affected species per genus denoted as spp.), host castes (m—male, w—worker, s—soldier, q—queen/gyne, IC—intercaste), regions of occurrence and elicited morphological changes as defined in Table 1; doubtful cases marked with *

From: Among the shapeshifters: parasite-induced morphologies in ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and their relevance within the EcoEvoDevo framework

  Parasite taxa Host taxa Host castes Regions Syndromes
Nematoda Mermithidae: Pheromermis, Agamomermis, Allomermis, Camponotimermis, Hexamermis, “Mermis”*, Meximermis Aphaenogaster subterranea, Camponotus spp., Cephalotes minutus, Colobopsis spp., Eciton burchellii, Ectatomma spp., Lasius spp., Myrmica spp., Odontomachus spp., Pachycondyla spp., Pheidole spp., Polyrhachis spp., Solenopsis spp., Tetramorium caespitum m, w*, s*, q, IC Europe, USA, South America, Australia, Papua New Guinea, D. R. Congo, Borneo CU, PG, IC, PR, SXR
Tetradonematidae: Myrmeconema neotropicum Cephalotes atratus w Panama, Peru CU, PR
Tetradonematidae: Tetradonema solenopsis* Solenopsis invicta w Brazil CU
Allantonematidae: Formicitylenchus oregonensis Camponotus vicinus q USA SXR
Seuratidae: Rabbium paradoxus* Camponotus castaneus w USA PG
Physalopteridae: Skrjabinoptera phrynosoma Pogonomyrmex barbatus w* USA CU, PG
Cestoda Davainaeidae: Raillietina spp., Cotugnia spp. Leptothorax spp., Monomorium spp., Myrmica spp., Pachycondyla sennaarensis, Pheidole spp., Tetramorium spp., Formica rufa* m, w, s, q Europe, USA, India, Australia, Sudan CU
Dilepididae: Anomotaenia spp., Choanotaenia spp. Harpagoxenus sublaevis, Leptothorax acervorum, Temnothorax spp. m, w, s, q, IC Europe, USA CU, IC, PR, SXR
Apicomplexa Neogregarinorida: Lipotrophidae:
Mattesia sp.
Harpagoxenus sublaevis, Leptothorax spp., Monomorium pharaonis, Myrmecia spp., Myrmica rubra, Solenopsis spp., Temnothorax spp. m, w, q Canada, USA, Europe, Brazil, Australia* CU
Fungi (inc. sed.) Myrmicinosporidium durum Aphaenogaster senilis, Cardiocondyla elegans, Cataglyphis hispanica, Crematogaster auberti, Goniomma hispanicum, Strongylognathus ceciliae, Messor barbarus, Nylanderia vividula, Pheidole spp., Plagiolepis spp., Pogonomyrmex spp., Solenopsis spp., Strumigenys membranifera, Tapinoma spp., Temnothorax spp., Tetramorium spp. m, w, s, q USA, Europe, Japan, Galapagos Is CU, PG
Virus (?)* “Labial Gland Disease” Camponotus spp., Formica spp., Prenolepis spp. m, w, q USA, Europe, Japan CU, IC, SXR