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Table 1 Vertebral information and congenital abnormalities in investigated mammalian specimens: Folivora (sloths)

From: Correction to: Breaking evolutionary and pleiotropic constraints in mammals: on sloths, manatees and homeotic mutations

Collection

Species

Collection No.

Sex

Vertebral formula

Presacral No.

Rud. ribs on vertebrae

Skeletal and fibrous abnormalities

Folivora (sloths)

       

 RBINC

Choloepus hoffmanni

15260b

F

5C 1C/T 22T 1T/L 3L 6S 1S/Cg 5Cg

32

V6, V29

C2/C3 fusion, deformation of pelvic girdle, hole in scapula

16349b)

F

5C 1C/T 21T 1T/L 3L 1L/S 5S 5Cg

31.5

V6

C1/C2 fusion, hole in larynx

16348b

F

5C 1C/T 21T 4L 1L/S 7S 1SCg 4Cg

31.5

V6

C2/C3 fusion

NCBN

Choloepus didactylus

RMNH.MAM.322b

F

6C 1C/T 23T 4L 7S 1S/Cg 5Cg

34

V7

Malformed first ribs, hole in scapula

RMNH.MAM.3961

F

6C 1C/T 23T 1T/L 2L 1L/S 7S 5Cg

33.5

V7

RMNH.MAM.24470

n.a.

5C 2C/T 24T 4L 7S 1S/Cg 3 + Cg

35

V6, V7

Abnormal fibrous band attached To rudimentary rib

RMNH.MAM.24469

n.a.

5C 2C/T 23T 4L 7S 4Cg

34

V6 V7

Incomplete ossification sternum

RMNH.MAM.3274

n.a.

6C 1C/T 22T 1T/L 4L 7S 6Cg

34

V7

RMNH.MAM.3465

n.a.

5C 2C/T 23T 1T/L 3L 7S 5Cg

34

V6 V7

C2–C3 fusion, ossification absent in sternum, fusion of ribs on V6–V7

RMNH.MAM.1002b

F

5C 2C/T 23T 3L 1L/S 7S 4Cg

33.5

V6 V7

C2–C3 fusion, deformation of first ribs, asymmetric sternum, fusion of rudimentary ribs on V6–V7

RMNH.MAM.7203b

F

6C 1C/T 23T 4L 7S 1S/Cg + Cg

34

V7

C2–C3 fusion, V7–V8 fusion, asymmetric vertebrae, fibrous band attached To rudimentary ribs

RMNH.MAM.2552

F

6C 1C/T 24T 3L 7S 1S/Cg 5Cg

34

V7

Malformed ribs (3 most anterior ones)

RMNH.MAM.1673

F

6C 1C/T 24T 3L 8S 5Cg

34

V7

C3, C4, C5 fused

ZMA335

n.a.

6C 1C/T 24T 3L 8S 4CG

34

V7

Ossification absent in sternum and sacrum

ZMA334

n.a.

5C 2C/T 23T 4L 1L/S 9S 3 + Cg

34.5

V6

C2–C3 fusion

ZMA.336

n.a.

6C 1C/T 1C/T 22T 4L 8S 4Cg

34

V7 V8

Abnormal fibrous band attached to rudimentary rib, incomplete ossification

RMNH.MAM.11417

F

Malformed humeri, oligodontia

RMNH.MAM.1156

n.a.

1L 1L/S 7S 4Cg

a

ZMA.9765

F

6S 1S/Cg

a

Bradypus tridactylus

RMNH.MAM.21576

n.a.

8C 1C/T 15T 3L 1L/S 6S 9Cg

28

V9

Asymmetric cranium

RMNH.MAM.21581

n.a.

7C 2C/T 14T 1T/L 3L 7S 8Cg

27

V8 V9 V24

RMNH.MAM.24440

n.a.

8C 1C/T 16T

Asymmetric cranium

RMNH.MAM.10460

F

8C 1C/T 15T 4L 6S 8Cg

28

V9

Irregularly shaped first rib

RMNH.MAM.10459

F

8C 1C/T 14T 3L 1L/S 6S 6C 6 + Cg

27

V9

Metacarpal, metatarsal anomalies, many fractures, hole in cranium (unknown cause)

RMNH.MAM.18781

F

8C 1C/T 14T 4L 6S 8Cg

27

V9

RMNH.MAM.24421

n.a.

8C 1C/T 15T 4L 5S 10Cg

28

ZMA331

n.a.

7C 2C/T 14T 1T/L 4L 6S 1S/Cg 7Cg

28

V8 V9 V24

Irregularly shaped vertebrae and first rib

ZMA332

n.a.

8C 1C/T 15T 1T/L 3L 6S 1S/Cg 6 + Cg

28

V9 V25

ZMA924b

n.a.

8C 1C/T 15T 3L 6S 7Cg

27

V9

Irregularly shaped vertebrae and first rib

U. ZMA coll.b

n.a.

8C 1C/T 15T 4L 5S 1S/Cg 8Cg

28

V9

  1. aSkeleton largely absent
  2. bDied in captivity
  3. n.a. not available, C cervical, T thoracic, L  lumbar, S sacral, Cg coccygeal, Cd caudal (post thoracic), V vertebra, rud. rudimentary, NCBN NCB naturalis, RMCA Royal Museum for Central Africa Tervuren, RBINC Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Brussels, NHM Natural History Museum London