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Table 1 Vertebral information and congenital abnormalities in investigated mammalian specimens: Folivora (sloths)

From: Correction to: Breaking evolutionary and pleiotropic constraints in mammals: on sloths, manatees and homeotic mutations

Collection Species Collection No. Sex Vertebral formula Presacral No. Rud. ribs on vertebrae Skeletal and fibrous abnormalities
Folivora (sloths)        
 RBINC Choloepus hoffmanni 15260b F 5C 1C/T 22T 1T/L 3L 6S 1S/Cg 5Cg 32 V6, V29 C2/C3 fusion, deformation of pelvic girdle, hole in scapula
16349b) F 5C 1C/T 21T 1T/L 3L 1L/S 5S 5Cg 31.5 V6 C1/C2 fusion, hole in larynx
16348b F 5C 1C/T 21T 4L 1L/S 7S 1SCg 4Cg 31.5 V6 C2/C3 fusion
NCBN Choloepus didactylus RMNH.MAM.322b F 6C 1C/T 23T 4L 7S 1S/Cg 5Cg 34 V7 Malformed first ribs, hole in scapula
RMNH.MAM.3961 F 6C 1C/T 23T 1T/L 2L 1L/S 7S 5Cg 33.5 V7
RMNH.MAM.24470 n.a. 5C 2C/T 24T 4L 7S 1S/Cg 3 + Cg 35 V6, V7 Abnormal fibrous band attached To rudimentary rib
RMNH.MAM.24469 n.a. 5C 2C/T 23T 4L 7S 4Cg 34 V6 V7 Incomplete ossification sternum
RMNH.MAM.3274 n.a. 6C 1C/T 22T 1T/L 4L 7S 6Cg 34 V7
RMNH.MAM.3465 n.a. 5C 2C/T 23T 1T/L 3L 7S 5Cg 34 V6 V7 C2–C3 fusion, ossification absent in sternum, fusion of ribs on V6–V7
RMNH.MAM.1002b F 5C 2C/T 23T 3L 1L/S 7S 4Cg 33.5 V6 V7 C2–C3 fusion, deformation of first ribs, asymmetric sternum, fusion of rudimentary ribs on V6–V7
RMNH.MAM.7203b F 6C 1C/T 23T 4L 7S 1S/Cg + Cg 34 V7 C2–C3 fusion, V7–V8 fusion, asymmetric vertebrae, fibrous band attached To rudimentary ribs
RMNH.MAM.2552 F 6C 1C/T 24T 3L 7S 1S/Cg 5Cg 34 V7 Malformed ribs (3 most anterior ones)
RMNH.MAM.1673 F 6C 1C/T 24T 3L 8S 5Cg 34 V7 C3, C4, C5 fused
ZMA335 n.a. 6C 1C/T 24T 3L 8S 4CG 34 V7 Ossification absent in sternum and sacrum
ZMA334 n.a. 5C 2C/T 23T 4L 1L/S 9S 3 + Cg 34.5 V6 C2–C3 fusion
ZMA.336 n.a. 6C 1C/T 1C/T 22T 4L 8S 4Cg 34 V7 V8 Abnormal fibrous band attached to rudimentary rib, incomplete ossification
RMNH.MAM.11417 F Malformed humeri, oligodontia
RMNH.MAM.1156 n.a. 1L 1L/S 7S 4Cg a
ZMA.9765 F 6S 1S/Cg a
Bradypus tridactylus RMNH.MAM.21576 n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 3L 1L/S 6S 9Cg 28 V9 Asymmetric cranium
RMNH.MAM.21581 n.a. 7C 2C/T 14T 1T/L 3L 7S 8Cg 27 V8 V9 V24
RMNH.MAM.24440 n.a. 8C 1C/T 16T Asymmetric cranium
RMNH.MAM.10460 F 8C 1C/T 15T 4L 6S 8Cg 28 V9 Irregularly shaped first rib
RMNH.MAM.10459 F 8C 1C/T 14T 3L 1L/S 6S 6C 6 + Cg 27 V9 Metacarpal, metatarsal anomalies, many fractures, hole in cranium (unknown cause)
RMNH.MAM.18781 F 8C 1C/T 14T 4L 6S 8Cg 27 V9
RMNH.MAM.24421 n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 4L 5S 10Cg 28
ZMA331 n.a. 7C 2C/T 14T 1T/L 4L 6S 1S/Cg 7Cg 28 V8 V9 V24 Irregularly shaped vertebrae and first rib
ZMA332 n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 1T/L 3L 6S 1S/Cg 6 + Cg 28 V9 V25
ZMA924b n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 3L 6S 7Cg 27 V9 Irregularly shaped vertebrae and first rib
U. ZMA coll.b n.a. 8C 1C/T 15T 4L 5S 1S/Cg 8Cg 28 V9
  1. aSkeleton largely absent
  2. bDied in captivity
  3. n.a. not available, C cervical, T thoracic, L  lumbar, S sacral, Cg coccygeal, Cd caudal (post thoracic), V vertebra, rud. rudimentary, NCBN NCB naturalis, RMCA Royal Museum for Central Africa Tervuren, RBINC Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Brussels, NHM Natural History Museum London