Whole mount in situ hybridization of Lhx genes in Mnemiopsis. Whole mount in situ hybridization of MlIslet (A-H), MlLhx1/5 (I-P), MlLhx3/4 (Q-X), and MlLmx (Y-F'), purple staining represents the localization of detected mRNA transcripts. The above cartoons are representations of the underlying corresponding stages of development. All views are either aboral or lateral where indicated, with the asterisk representing the blastopore and future mouth. (A-H) MlIslet is expressed in aboral ectodermal cells, adjacent to MlLhx3/4, that give rise to part of the apical organ floor as well as the polar fields. (I-P) MlLhx1/5 is expressed around the blastopore, which gives rise to the pharynx. It is also expressed in mesodermal cells that give rise to the photocytes, which underlie four of the comb rows. There is late expression in four small groups of cells in the apical organ which overlap with cells that give rise to proposed photosensory cells. (Q-X) MlLhx3/4 is expressed in the aboral ectoderm, in a large group of cells that gives rise to part of the apical organ. (Y-F') MlLmx is expressed in two groups of cells that give rise to part of the tentacle bulb apparatus. Expression is also found in the same four groups of cells in the apical organ that overlap with the MlLhx1/5 expression.