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Table 1 Caudal vertebral body fusion mouse mutants

From: From dinosaurs to birds: a tail of evolution

Mutant Affected vertebraea cdl v #b Fused ribs Fused digits Structure affected Relevant pathways
C T L S cdl So NT NC VER
Ankrd13a              Nd
Cenpj              Nd
CREB           Notch/Wnt
Dkk1 doubleridge/null           Wnt
Dll3 ++       Notch/Wnt
f flexed tail; Sfxn1 mutation    +/-      Bmp/Shh
Fgf3      ++       Notch/Wnt
Hes7 ++       Notch/Wnt
Ikkα    +        Notch; FGF
Jsr jumbled spine and ribs      ++       Notch/Wnt
Knk kinked tail      +        Notch; Wnt
Lrp6 crooked tail      ++      Notch/Wnt
mea meander tail   * ++        Wnt
Meox1/Meox2      ++       Retinoic Acid
Noto    ++      Wnt
Nrarp   +       Notch/Wnt
Ppp5c              Wnt
Ror2      +     Notch/Wnt; Wnt
Rpl38    ++       Hox
Rps7     * +        nd
Sulf1/Sulf2           Bmp/Shh
Vangl2   ++       Wnt
Wnt5a     +++      Wnt
  1. Selected phenotypes and relevant genetic pathways for each mutant are indicated.aAsterisks indicate fusion other than vertebral body fusion. bFor the decreased number of caudal vertebrae (Cdl vertebrae #) column, +: less than half of the tail is absent; ++: half or more of the tail is absent; and +++: tail is severely truncated. Check marks indicate the presence of a particular trait. For a more comprehensive list of posterior vertebral body fusion mouse mutants (those which have fusions posterior to the cervical vertebrae, as seen in modern birds), and for more information on the caudal vertebral body mutants, see Additional files 2 and 3. Abbreviations: C, cervical; cdl, caudal; L, lumbar; NT, neural tube; NC, notochord; nd, not determined; S, sacral; So, somite; v, vertebrae; VER, ventral ectodermal ridge.